a The range of a force is inversely proportional to the mass of the particles transmitting it. 0 The field and the particle—named after Peter Higgs of the University of Edinburgh, one of the physicists who in 1964 first proposed the mechanism—provided a testable hypothesis for the origin of mass in elementary particles.

W v L,R It was therefore several decades before the first evidence of the Higgs boson was found.

[120], In November 2012, in a conference in Kyoto researchers said evidence gathered since July was falling into line with the basic Standard Model more than its alternatives, with a range of results for several interactions matching that theory's predictions. The two teams had been working 'blinded' from each other from around late 2011 or early 2012,[100] meaning they did not discuss their results with each other, providing additional certainty that any common finding was genuine validation of a particle. In practice, many processes may produce similar decay signatures. [29], The Higgs field is the only scalar (spin 0) field to be detected; all the other fields in the Standard Model are spin ½ fermions or spin 1 bosons.

1

In this scenario, the universe as we know it could effectively be destroyed by collapsing into a more stable vacuum state.

[q] These indirect constraints rely on the assumption that the Standard Model is correct. Most of these factors are fixed by the Standard Model, except for the mass of the Higgs boson itself.

This cosmological constant problem remains a major unanswered problem in physics. j

2 "[200] {\displaystyle \lambda _{\text{u,d,e}}^{i}} In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons. +

[83] (A controversy also arose the same year, because in the event of a Nobel Prize only up to three scientists could be recognised, with six being credited for the papers. σ This experimental guidance may help theoretical physicists hone in on a theory of quantum gravity that applies to our universe. Experiment, at CERN.

Advances in Physics, vol. g i [145] The heavily researched Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) includes a Type-II 2HDM Higgs sector, so it could be disproven by evidence of a Type-I 2HDM Higgs.

The importance of this fundamental question led to a 40-year search, and the construction of one of the world's most expensive and complex experimental facilities to date, CERN's Large Hadron Collider,[20] in an attempt to create Higgs bosons and other particles for observation and study. [152] While tachyons (particles that move faster than light) are a purely hypothetical concept, fields with imaginary mass have come to play an important role in modern physics. There was not yet any direct evidence that the Higgs field existed, but even without proof of the field, the accuracy of its predictions led scientists to believe the theory might be true. 2 The remaining electrically neutral component either manifests as a Higgs particle, or may couple separately to other particles known as fermions (via Yukawa couplings), causing these to acquire mass as well.[26].

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